تونس -عبد الباسط غبارة لأكثر من اربعة عقود، بين عامي 1969 و2011، حظيت مدينة سرت بمكانة مميزة على اعتبار انها مسقط راس الزعيم الليبي الراحل معمر القذافي. لكنها كانت دائماً مهداً للمعارك الكبرى في تاريخ ليبيا المعاصر. تقع سرت على بعد 450 كلم شرق العاصمة طرابلس، وعلى بعد نحو 250 كلم شرق مدينة مصراتة، في […]
Punishing Sirte: birthplace of Colonel cradle of great battles
Tunisia-Abdel Basset dust
For more than four decades, between 1969 and 2011, Sirte, in a privileged position as the birthplace of the late Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. But it has always been the cradle of great battles in the history of modern Libya.
Located 450 kilometers east of Sirte capital Tripoli, 250 miles east of the city of Misrata, mid coast road link between Tripoli and Benghazi. The city is about 150 km from the beginning of the oil which includes Crescent area of major export ports in the country. Overlooking the Mediterranean Sea in the face of the Italian coast about 350 km. The population of Sirte about 120 thousand inhabitants according to officials figures, of whom lived in the area from downtown to Uptown. Most of the population of nomads who belong to several Libyan tribes, the largest of the tribes of qadhadhfa worflh and fireejs. Governor of Sirte community is famous for its livestock for centuries. The city is of sites where occupies an intermediate between Eastern and western Libya, and at the same time is considered a gateway to the Interior bevzan, and can be taken starting base to oases which lies to the East and South.
After the revolution of 1 September 1969, had walked very carefully, and four decades of kadhafi carried out infrastructure projects and established the University in town that boomed out movement of reconstruction and spread modern buildings. It has gained greater importance swirled port with the development of offshore oil extraction. In the city centre of Ouagadougou “for conferences with marble halls, the largest Conference Hall in Libya, and one of the most important centres in the region, which used to Muammar Gaddafi greeted guests with his counterparts from world leaders. Muammar Gaddafi talked about converting walked into the capital, asking his ministers except foreign-based transfer. But the majority of civic action practically remained in Tripoli.
In the late nineties of the twentieth century the city had the most important events in its history, namely the African Union Declaration on September 9, 1999 in “meeting wakadoko ‘ who is from famous landmarks and Great Lakes peace accord. And was regularly held meetings of the Libyan General People’s Congress, which organizes international conferences and summits. She was nominated to host some of the fledgling African Union headquarters. As held in Sirte wakadoko Arabic Summit halls 22. And chosen as the capital of Arabic culture in 2011.
- Walk to punish
Sirte people lived a blockade imposed on them days and nights black and difficult circumstances in which NATO air strikes on the city of 20/3 20/10/2011, leaving a lot of destruction of infrastructure across the city, and vital facilities and the effects of terror and panic among children, spread fear among the population of women, the elderly and the disabled, in addition to armed rebel brigades fire, still patrol the town from all sides, tanks and rocket launchers, forcing thousands of children, women and the elderly, the sick and the needy Forced out of their homes, and forced displacement from their homes, leaving everything they had behind them, fearing for their lives, and the lives of their children. Following the fall of autumn civil 2011, the new system had been marginalized SIRT, and social activities for the Salafi groups that cleaner campaigns and aid distribution, the city recovered relatively calm for months before the Salafi groups control control over Government and official institutions, which polarized the Sharia supporters planning swore later leader of ISIS, Abu Bakr Al-Baghdadi at the beginning of 2015.
- SART: cradle of battles
Battle of the Gulf of Sidra
In the spring of 1986, the US Navy deployed aircraft carrier battle group in the Mediterranean and specifically the disputed Gulf of Sidra, Libya is considered a violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the country on the Gulf of Sirte, especially after Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi in 1973 that the Libyan SIRT and subject to their sovereignty and select latitude 32 (115 km from Libyan shores) as a point may not be exceeded only with prior permission from the Libyan authorities, the title line of death and naval and air surveillance patrols across it, but The United States rejected the Libyan SIRT considered statements international waters and the right exercises and Libyan territorial waters only belt 19 km on Libyan shores.
Washington was looking for excuses to be attacks aimed at disciplining the Libyan leadership on its part Washington sees prolonged Libyan attempt to put Washington into peer. And tension in u.s. relations with Libya, Libyan missiles SA 5 advanced ground-to-air obtained from the Soviet Union in 1991, with America to expand its military presence in the Mediterranean and the US sixth fleet stationed permanently, and began being continuous manoeuvres and deliberately infiltrated the airspace and territorial waters of the Gulf of Sirte. With u.s. airspace violations continued for the Libyan SIRT inhibitors replied, and moved just provocative American armed clashes between the Libyan and American forces.
Battle of February
“17th of March” remained SIRT from late fall Ghaddafi’s opponents, however, cities where bombed by NATO forces several times. Muammar Gaddafi announced Libya’s capital of Sirte on September 1, 2011. And may be desperate military forces loyal to Colonel in the defense of the city and suffered massive destruction during the battle of Sirte in the history of the war that followed the February 17. Muammar Gaddafi was killed on 20 January 2011.
I started the battle of Sirte in mid-September, after about a month of “opponents” on most of Libya, including the capital Tripoli. Where resistance was fierce, and anti-Colonel was unable to progress in three weeks to start the fight for only a few hundred meters inside the city. With the escalation of fighting, most civilians fled, leaving only the resistance forces. On 20 October, the Colonel’s convoy was bombed by NATO aircraft (NATO) on a highway on the outskirts of the city. He died later that day in mysterious circumstances, prompting the international community to demand that the new leaders in Libya to investigate his death.
The United Nations reported that Libyan rebels who fought Muammar Gaddafi forces committed war crimes and those who are potential supporters reprisals for former leader of minorities. The report said that “great destruction (Sirte) and weapons used to demonstrate that the attacks were indiscriminate. The international investigation Commission denounced the U.N. on Libya in a draft second report published by Friday 2 March 2012 filter from 65 to 78 soldiers late Muammar Gaddafi supporters rebels Misrata in October 2011, asserting that these did not stop the reprisals after the fall of the regime.
From ISIS to duress
On March 14, 2015, fighting started between troops of the Organization of ISIS and shield Libya, described violent clashes. Over two months, sporadic fighting erupted about SART. On 28 March dominated “ISIS” on air alkordabet base and great man made river water project outside Sirte. And within a few days, Libya blew forces withdrew from their positions, about 12 miles west of Sirte, after ISIS forces advanced East, South and West.
In June of 2015, judging organization ISIS grip on SIRT, to turn the city into a large prison misses the most basic necessities of life in addition to continuing violations repayment by ISIS regulation leading to a humanitarian catastrophe inside the city and some other cities continued exodus. And wouldn’t stop torrent sweeping abuses and crimes committed by organizing “ISIS” SIRT when suppressing public freedoms and civilian arrests and assassinations, the Organization for security and military personnel. But bypass it to exercise various types of torture and abuse and psychological terror on the inhabitants of the city, in addition to harassing them in all areas of life, exacerbating the humanitarian crisis for civilians fleeing out of town.
And in August 2015 National Human Rights Committee expressed by Libya, condemnation and indignation the SIRT and civilians for the most heinous crimes of genocide and heinous violations by organizing terrorist ISIS what signing dozens of victims and injured were civilians. The Committee said in a statement that the SIRT disaster area, as a result of the terrorist organization’s control, ISIS and serious human rights violations and indiscriminate heavy violent methods for civilians to 3rd District of the city, in addition to the siege of terrorist organization for a range of other neighbourhoods in Sirte and the acute shortage of medical and food supplies and humanitarian and medical units not provided urgent medical supplies needed to treat critical cases, injured and wounded and save her.
And in August 2015 city Sirte, clashes between the city’s population, and organize ISIS, having the oldest elements of the murder before the Euroregion, Khalid Bin Rajab. And entered the city ground in media reports of heavy fighting left more than 100 dead and wounded inside the hospital burned by “ISIS”. He also organized a campaign later mass executions of prisoners arrested during the clashes.
On May 6, 2016, the Government, the formation of a special operations room to lead military operations against organized “ISIS” and barred all armed groups in the country to move on her own without her consent. And on the 12th of January 2016, government troops backed by the international community, massive attack to regain the North coastal city Sirte, Libya, from the grip of militants of “ISIS” who control them since June 2015. they succeeded surrounded on all sides and marched into the city, but faltered because of anti-“ISIS” attacks, especially suicide bombers.
In the first of last August, the United States began to organize raids in support of the national reconciliation government forces believed that this intervention would be for weeks, not months. In September, the U.S. military command said 2016 in Africa, AFRICOM, “about the outcome of air strikes targeting the locations and concentrations of elements organized” ISIS “in Sirte and that a total of one hundred and sixty nine blow.